les techniques de l'insémination

  NB: tous le vocabulaire difficile est dans terminologie

 

Avant de congeler, le sperme est évalué par un spermogramme.

 

Le spermogramme consiste à évaluer le volume de l'éjaculat, la concentration en spermatozoïde ainsi que leur mobilité et leur morphologie.

Ce ne sont que les spermatozoïdes ayant une bonne morphologie et une bonne mobilité qui résisteront à la congélation.

 

La congélation est une technique peu onéreuse qui permet de conserver des cellules vivantes, mais pour cela des précautions doivent être prises.

·         La taille des cristaux d'eau est déterminante, les cristaux de grande taille détruisent les cellules. Ainsi il faut une descente en température très rapide. En pratique nous utilisons l'azote liquide (-196 °C) ainsi que des 'paillettes', tube fin en plastique résistant aux basses températures et présentant une grande surface pour un volume réduit ce qui accélère la formation des cristaux.

·         L'adjonction de protecteur comme le glycérol permet d'éviter la destruction des membranes des cellules.

·         Ainsi en pratique :

o        le sperme est collecté par masturbation

o        puis mélangé avec un milieu protecteur

o        réparti dans des paillettes de 0,25 ml

o        descendu en température grâce à un appareil programmé

o        stocké dans de l'azote liquide

 

Le respect de la chaîne du froid est une obligation pour conserver le maximum de spermatozoïdes mobiles ce qui impose des contraintes lors des manipulations et des transports.

 

La décongélation se fait rapidement à température ambiante, le mélange avec un milieu de survie des spermatozoïdes se fait progressivement pour éviter les chocs thermiques et osmotiques.

 

Le test de décongélation est un contrôle de qualité des paillettes. Il est pratiqué après la décongélation d'une paillette de référence pour chaque éjaculat congelé.

Désolée, il y a un peu de termes techniques, mais il n'existe pas plus complet sur les méthodes .

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